Camera Mode Dial
Auto, Program Mode, Aperture Mode, Shutter Mode and Manual Mode. These five modes are on most cameras that are semi professional and professional cameras, if you wish to learn to make the most of your camera then stay clear of auto and program mode. Although having said that there are time when I have also used them for quick snap shots due to time constraints and cameras now a days have amazing capacity to take good photos with those modes, but then why did you buy a super duper camera instead of a smaller point and shoot.
There are other options on the camera dial which are useful, I particularly enjoy the panorama mode, which enables you to take panoramas which the camera automatically stitches the photo in camera.
Below is a photo of a mode dial on a Sony Camera, Nikon and Sony use P, A, S, M and Canon use M, Av, Tv, P (Tv is S on Nikon and Sony cameras)
So, with Auto mode the camera does it all itself, with Program mode the camera does it all by itself, but you have some small options for changing the aperture and shutter speed, with aperture mode the camera chooses the shutter speed while you have full control with the aperture and with shutter mode the camera chooses the aperture while you have full control over the shutter speed and finally the manual mode, this is where you have full control over the aperture and shutter speeds.
The scene option which give you loads of presets like beach, portraits, sports, night and so on, in the more recent cameras there are loads of different options. Sometimes there are custom options which you can set to your own choice and there is a movie mode to enable you to take movies.